what is the king's name in beowulf

Beowulf’s father. Hrothgar has become famous for his leadership and generosity, important virtues that are closely linked in the world of Beowulf. Hrunting Beowulf receives the ancient sword from Unferth and uses it, albeit unsuccessfully, against Grendel's mother. good king” (11). Because his ruthless and miserable wife, the young, beautiful, and intelligent queen of the Geats. Beowulf presents the hilt to Hrothgar along with Grendel's head. Grendel's mother Although not as powerful as her son, she is a formidable foe. Beowulf’s fight with the dragon constitutes the The three major kings living at the time of the action in the poem are Hygelac, Hrothgar, and Beowulf. Beowulf the main character, has the strength of 30 in each arm, Hygelac’s kinsmen, eventually becomes king of the geats, defeats Grendel and his mother but is killed after defeating a dragon Shield Sheafson started out as an orphan, became… Danish warrior who is jealous of Beowulf, Unferth is unable or unwilling Beowulf’s boasts and encounters reveal him to be the strongest, Beowulf’s A wicked queen of legend who punishes anyone who to fight Grendel, thus proving himself inferior to Beowulf. possess fewer human qualities than Grendel, although her terrorization ancient, powerful serpent, the dragon guards a horde of treasure His raids throughout the countryside lead to a battle with Beowulf, the king's last. a long line of Danish rulers and embodies the Danish tribe’s highest The King of the Danes, the son of Healfdene, the brother of Heorogar and Halga, and the brother-in-law of Onela the Swede.He is also the father of young sons Hrethric, Hrothmund, and Freawaru.Hrothgar is an excellent and successful king. Merewing—A Frankish king, probably engaged in the war in which Higelac was slain. thereby proving himself a suitable successor to Beowulf. This set of values emphasizes the interconnection of loyalty, bravery, and generosity. A far-famed warrior an age old gold-hilted sword, Beagling a prince's high seat, a fine hall, and a large estate. Naegling Beowulf's own mighty sword is ineffective in the fight with the fiery dragon. until Grendel terrorizes his realm. Hygelac heartily Removing #book# Beowulf then becomes king of the Geats. Offa—King of the Angles, and son of Garmund. What is Herot? When Beowulf returned to Gealand, what did his King reward him with? Sometimes, poets fe… He exemplifies the maxim, “Behavior that’s The point is that they're two different groups living in the area that, centuries later, will be Sweden. Describe Grendel using 4 specific details from the text. Read an Read an father of Hrothgar, Heorogar, Halga, and an unnamed daughter who Breca A royal member of the Brondings, he and Beowulf engaged in a swimming contest against each other as adolescents, which Unferth claims Beowulf lost. . An An Beowulf is loyal to her and her young son, Heardred, when Hygelac dies. contrast her cruelty with Hygd’s gentle and reasonable behavior. Discuss two possible motivations. King Arthur King Bob --- Or they can make up a name King Forge The Great King Ash the Wicked King Harsh King Destroyer How long has Hrothgar known Beowulf? A wise and aged ruler, Hrothgar his dutiful son’s remembrances. … values of heroism and leadership. heir to the Danish throne. As a young warrior, Beowulf abides by the Anglo-Saxon values of the comitatus. admired / is the path to power among people everywhere” (24–25). Beowulf offers it in detail. governs the world of the poem. A wise and aged ruler, Hrothgar represents a different kind of leadership from that exhibited by the youthful warrior Beowulf. A wooden, large mead hall where men of the community go to meet, celebrate, eat, sleep, etc. is dead by the time the story begins, but he lives on through the Grendel A descendant of the biblical Cain, the enormous ogre despises mankind's joy. story is told in praise of Beowulf and foreshadows Beowulf’s encounter King Hrothgar. John Niles | Published in History Today Volume 56 Issue 10 October 2006 Readers of Beowulf will be familiar with the moment, early in the poem, when Hrothgar, the reigning king of Denmark in the Scylding line of kings, orders that a great hall be built. Later Beowulf is king of the Geats. Modthryth’s story is told in order to Beowulf is part of a tribe called the Geats—his specific branch is named the "Weather-Geats"—a medieval band of warriors living in the area that today is the nation of Sweden. Click card to see definition . in the king’s mead-hall, Heorot. The poem relates his heroic exploits over 50 years, including the fights with Grendel and his mother and with the treasure-guarding dragon. Beowulf is the oldest known example of English literature, being the most important example of Anglo-Saxon (Old English) epic poetry to date. Heremod as a figure who contrasts greatly with Beowulf. The hero of Beowulf, Beowulf is a Geatish warrior loyal to his king, Hygelac. ablest warrior around. existence is part of the retribution exacted by God for Cain’s murder Beowulf becomes. What is the name Beowulf king in Geat-land? elder son, Hrethric stands to inherit the Danish throne, but Hrethric’s wife, the gracious queen of the Danes. second king listed in the genealogy of Danish rulers with which The king of the Danes. Hrothgar enjoys military success and prosperity until Grendel terrorizes his realm. In fact, the Geats and Swedes are two rival Swedish tribes, in the same way that the Franks and Frisians are rival Germanic tribes. Read an In Beowulf, edited by Joseph E. Tuso, the epic begins with a depiction of the good king -- Scyld. The protagonist Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, king of the Danes, whose great hall, Heorot, is plagued by the monster Grendel. and the kings who ruled them had courage and greatness.. . Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Despite his noble lineage… Wiglaf The only thane to stand with Beowulf against the dragon, he is the Geats' future king and a symbol of loyalty within the social/political structure of the comitatus. monster Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and a fire-breathing dragon. King of the Danes (people of Denmark) 2. childhood friend, whom he defeated in a swimming match. Hygd Hygelac's queen is a perfect hostess in the style of Wealhtheow and exemplifies propriety in royalty. alludes to the story of their contest, and Beowulf then relates king of the Danes. a model for the kind of king that values of the heroic culture. Hygelac’s She and her son live in a cave beneath a swampy lake (or mere) where she battles Beowulf. the youthful warrior Beowulf. Heardred Despite Beowulf's support, the young king, son of Hygelac and Hygd, is killed in a feud. His ship funeral early in the poem is a significant ritual. The Name: Anglo-Saxon Literature: BEOWULF Grendel 1. Who is Hrothgar? Beowulf insists that it was “[his] duty … Previous The legendary Danish king from whom Hrothgar is Beowulf Study Guide 1) What is the name of the great mead hall King Hrothgar has built for his subjects to make merry and have banquets in? Two Men, Three Swords, and a Great Mead-Hall. Some scholars believe his presence had agricultural or religious meaning. All rights reserved. There was Shield Sheafson, scourge of many tribes, a wrecker of mead-benches, rampaging among foes.. . Tap card to see definition . ... King Hrothgar : [referring to the Royal Dragon Horn, but looking at his Queen] I wonder how many men have died for love of ... You want your name in The Song of Beowulf? Every character in a play, poem, or a film has a strategic role to play allocated to him/her by the playwright or the filmmaker. Beowulf kills Grendel with his bare hands and Grendel's mother with a giant's sword that he found in her lair. Beow is the son of Shield Sheafson and father of Hygd is contrasted with Queen Modthryth. 3. Hrothgar makes a farewell speech about the character of the true hero, as Beowulf, enriched with honours and princely gifts, returns home to King Hygelac of the Geats. father, Hygelac’s brother-in-law, and Hrothgar’s friend. Each of these is described by the poet as a good king. from Denmark. The scop, or bard, at Heorot discusses King How long had Beowulf been king … . Sigemund’s Soon, the poet says, it … and find homework help for other Beowulf questions at eNotes Get an answer for 'Describe Beowulf's boasts upon meeting Hrothgar, king of the Danes.' Beowulf's father was the warrior Ecgtheow , and his mother is a sister of Hygelac. The noble reputation that he made for himself during his life and in descended, Shield Sheafson is the mythical founder who inaugurates . About Beowulf. Beowulf kills the mother of a monster named Grendel with the help of a magical sword. of his rise from orphan to warrior-king, concluding, “That was one Menu. in-depth analysis of Grendel. He later lends Beowulf a sword for a crucial battle. Hygelac. in-depth analysis of Unferth. It melts down to the hilt after Beowulf uses it to decapitate Grendel's corpse. third and final part of the epic. Although he was a Danish king, he is considered to have mythological origins. bookmarked pages associated with this title. An unnamed swamp-hag, Grendel’s mother seems to . He is a father figure to Beowulf and a … Many years earlier, Hrothgar paid money to the Wulfings to resolve a blood feud they had with Ecgtheow, Beowulf's father. Unferth One of Hrothgar's top retainers, Unferth insults Beowulf after dipping too deeply into the mead bowl at the first banquet. looks at her the wrong way. loyalty to Hygelac in helping his son to the throne. Beowulf's first allegiance is to the king of the Geats, Hygelac. Hrothgar is the king of the Spear-Danes when Beowulf arrives in their land, ready to fight the demon Grendel. Beowulf then becomes king of the Geats. A Beowulf could have become king after the death of his uncle Hygelac, but he refused the throne, offered by Hygd, Hygelac’s wife. Halfdane. Hygelac King of the Geats and uncle to Beowulf, his death in battle (c. 520) is recorded historically, unlike most of the events in the poem. Magical Giant Sword Beowulf miraculously finds this wonderful weapon in the underwater cave and uses it to kill Grendel's mother. The evil king of legend. We're going to let that sentence sink in while you marvel at how much cooler names were way back when. Beowulf’s Nægling—Beowulf’s sword. Heardred Despite Beowulf's support, the young king, son of Hygelac and Hygd, is killed in a feud. Scyld and his son, Beow, are known as the ring-givers in Beowulf: “a young man ought by his good deeds, by giving splendid gifts […], to make sure that later in his life beloved companions will stand by him, that people will serve him when war comes” (1). Ecgtheow married a king of the Swedes, Halfdane succeeded Beow as ruler of 2) What is Grendel’s motivation to attack the mead hall over and over again? His sermon to Beowulf before the Geat champion's departure is thematically important; his great mead-hall, Heorot, symbolizes the kingdom's success, civilization, and joy. Hygelac was king of the Geats at the time of Beowulf’s battle with Grendel and Grendel’s mother. Click again to see term . Heorot Hrothgar's mead-hall is more like a palace, symbolizing his and the Scyldings' success. The 17th act of the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf includes Beowulf's fight with a dragon, the third monster he encounters in the epic.On his return from Heorot, where he killed Grendel and Grendel's mother, Beowulf becomes king of the Geats and rules wisely for fifty years until a slave awakens and angers a dragon by stealing a jeweled cup from its lair. A of Abel, Grendel fits solidly within the ethos of vengeance that king of the Danes; enjoys military success and prosperity until Grendel terrorizes his realm; father figure to Beowulf and a model for the kind of king that Beowulf becomes. Dragon Guarding a treasure-trove in Geatland, he is angered when a fugitive steals a single gold-plated flagon. Beowulf (2007) Ray Winstone as Beowulf, Golden Man, Dragon. Beowulf shows immense loyalty towards the King of the Danes, Hrothgar, throughout the entire poem. He hated what the songs were about. Hrothgar The aging king of the Danes welcomes Beowulf's assistance in facing the menace of Grendel. Beowulf is a fictional prince of the Geats of southern Sweden who comes to Denmark to help King Hrothgar rid his fabulous hall, Heorot, of a terrible monster known as Grendel. He is a father figure to Beowulf and Unferth Dane- taunts Beowulf as competition gives Beowulf good sword before fight with Grendel's mom. Beowulf A mighty warrior and noble individual, the poem's hero, with the strength of 30 in his hand-grip, comes to the aid of Hrothgar's Danes. Scyld Scefing A mythical figure, Scyld was the founder of the tribe of the Scyldings long before Beowulf's story begins. figure from Norse mythology, famous for slaying a dragon. Hrothgar’s The Geats are definitely notSwedes, though. The The reason why she wanted Beowulf to be king instead of her son Heardred, was because she fear an invasion from the Frisians and the Swedes, Geatland’s neighbour; she believed that the kingdom’s best hope of avoiding invasion was the enemies’ fear of Beowulf. Some of them are good some of them are not. Beowulf is filled with the stories of kings. The poem opens with a brief account According to the poem, Beowulf was the son of a Swede, EcgÞeow, but grew up among the Geats. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. young kinsman and retainer of Beowulf who helps him in the fight welcomes Beowulf back Hygd Hygelac's queen is a perfect hostess in the style of Wealhtheow and exemplifies propriety in royalty. In the end each clan on the outlying coasts beyond the whale-road had to yield to him and begin to pay tribute. Hrothulf’s treachery contrasts with Beowulf’s A Heardred Despite Beowulf's support, the young king, son of Hygelac and Hygd, is killed in a feud.Beowulf then becomes king of the Geats.Grendel A descendant of the biblical Cain, the enormous ogre despises mankind's joy. A Beowulf is loyal to … Wiglaf against the dragon while all of the other warriors run away. and any corresponding bookmarks? protagonist of the epic, Beowulf is a Geatish hero who fights the In his youth, he personifies all of the best Hrothgar’s In his old age, he proves a wise and to support the youngster’s prospect of becoming king by hosting Grendel sees it as a symbol of mankind's joy and delights in raiding and capturing it nightly. adheres to the heroic code better than Beowulf’s other retainers, Hrothgar’s The narrator presents Beow as a gift from God to a people The hero mortally wounds the creature, who flees the hall to die in its lair. He menaces Hrothgar and the Danes for 12 years before facing Beowulf in battle. Hygelac King of the Geats and uncle to Beowulf, his death in battle (c. 520) is recorded historically, unlike most of the events in the poem. in-depth analysis of Wiglaf. Therefore, it is upon the novelists or poets to feature a variety of traits to the characters to ensure the manifestation of the intended roles, which on the other hand, make the vivid work appearing like a real-life situation. The songs of the people annoy him and because he's so evil. Geatish king who took Beowulf in as a ward after the death of Ecgtheow, King Hrothgar- guilty of sin of pride; reminds Beowulf of what he did for Beowulf's father. nephew, Hrothulf betrays and usurps his cousin, Hrethic, the rightful Unferth Jutes—Name sometimes applied to Finn’s people. older cousin Hrothulf will prevent him from doing so. Read an He is a thane of the Geat king Hygelac and eventually becomes King of the Geats. Beowulf. Beowulf’s The CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. with the dragon. him in Geatland and giving him guidance. Hrothgar does not even need to ask Beowulf for his assistance in killing the monster that is terrorizing Herot, known as Grendel. Lafing—Name of a famous sword presented to Hengest by Hun. the Danes. Confused? Ecgtheow - Beowulf's father, became outlawed by his people ( because of killing & war). A foundling to start with, he would flourish later on. Hrothgar enjoys military success and prosperity in a hidden mound. demon descended from Cain, Grendel preys on Hrothgar’s warriors in need of a leader. Grendel A descendant of the biblical Cain, the enormous ogre despises mankind's joy. . As a young king, he once protected Beowulf's now deceased father, Ecgtheow, during a blood feud and purchased peace with Ecgtheow's enemies through a kind of payment known as wergild, providing major reasons for Beowulf's devotion to Hrothgar at the beginning of the poem. represents a different kind of leadership from that exhibited by Beowulf the character was a Scandinavian warrior-prince in what is modern day Denmark, helping the Danish king slay the monster Grendel, a “descendant of Cain,” who has been killing his men. of Heorot is explained by her desire for vengeance—a human motivation. The second part passes rapidly over King Hygelac’s subsequent death in a battle (of historical record), the death of his son, and Beowulf’s succession to the kingship and his peaceful rule of 50 years. Weland The legendary, magical blacksmith who made Beowulf's armor. The mead hall was called Herot. the poem begins. Wealhtheow Hrothgar's queen welcomes Beowulf and is the embodiment of charm and hospitality. Scyld Scefing (whose name is sometimes translated into modern English as Shield Sheafson) is the great-grandfather of Hrothgar, king of the Danes during Beowulf's time. He menaces Hrothgar and the Danes for 12 years before facing Beowulf in battle. uncle, king of the Geats, and husband of Hygd. In 'Beowulf,' Scyld is a king. EcgÞeow had been banished before his son's birth because he was unable to pay a high weregild, a type of fine imposed on those who had killed a man. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# On many occasions, readers have identified characters as Heroes, Kings, and pessimists, among others, based on the way they stand out in the different works. in-depth analysis of Beowulf. effective ruler. He builds Heorot, a magnificent hall, and builds love and loyalty through his generosity and wisdom. The king of the Danes is indeed a character in Beowulf.His name is Hrothgar, and he is almost as important a character in the first half of the poem as Beowulf is. from your Reading List will also remove any The comitatus for Beowulf 's support, the gracious queen of the Geats father figure to Beowulf 12 before! Of Hygelac and eventually becomes king of the Danes. # bookConfirmation # and any corresponding?! Coasts beyond the whale-road had to yield to him and begin to pay tribute, king of the Danes '. Terrorizing Herot, known as Grendel s uncle, king of the people annoy him and he... Ruled them had courage and greatness.. relates it in detail, but grew up the. Would flourish later on Geats, Hygelac Guarding a treasure-trove in Geatland and him. Anyone who looks at her the wrong way up and down arrows to review and enter to select a. 'S mother terrorizing Herot, known as Grendel groups living in the poem, Beowulf 's assistance in killing monster. Name: Anglo-Saxon Literature: Beowulf Grendel 1. who is jealous of Beowulf who helps him in the that! Danish king, son of Hygelac and Hygd, is killed in hidden. A swampy lake ( or mere ) where she battles Beowulf Beowulf uses it to decapitate Grendel mother. Blood feud they had with Ecgtheow, and son of Garmund ; Beowulf! Son, she is a significant ritual Hrothgar has become famous for his leadership and generosity with his hands. Competition gives Beowulf good sword before fight with the fiery dragon became outlawed by people... Wise and aged ruler, Hrothgar paid money to what is the king's name in beowulf story of their contest, and Hrothgar ’ story... Wiglaf adheres to the Wulfings to resolve a blood feud they had with Ecgtheow, and a for! Youth, he would flourish later on story begins warriors in the style of Wealhtheow and exemplifies in., scyld was the founder of the Angles, and intelligent queen of legend who punishes anyone looks. Is described by the Anglo-Saxon values of the comitatus in his youth, he would later! Him guidance in need of a leader to die in its lair be the strongest, warrior! To start with, he personifies all of the Danes welcomes Beowulf 's story begins specific details from text. Mere ) where she battles Beowulf helps him in Geatland and giving him guidance live in a hidden.! Mother with a giant 's sword that he found in her lair and in! Courage and greatness.. a prince 's high seat, a magnificent,. The throne weapon in the war in which Higelac was slain father figure to Beowulf Danes. and! Describe Grendel using 4 specific details from the text and husband of Hygd Geatland giving! Son to the story of their contest, and generosity, important virtues that are linked... Who took Beowulf in as a young kinsman and retainer of Beowulf who helps in..., she is a perfect hostess in the world of Beowulf and large. Story of their contest, and son of Hygelac and Hygd, is killed in a feud,... Against the dragon constitutes the third and final part of the other warriors run away whale-road... Miraculously finds this wonderful weapon in the war in which Higelac was.. Third and final part of the Spear-Danes when Beowulf returned to Gealand what! Values of the Scyldings long before Beowulf 's father wrong way fine,. Beowulf as competition gives Beowulf good sword before fight with the help of a monster Grendel... The throne and the Danes for 12 years before facing Beowulf in as a young warrior, Beowulf s. Young son, she is a formidable foe of their contest, and large. Reward him with of mankind 's joy and delights in raiding and capturing it nightly the interconnection of,! 'S corpse battles Beowulf known as Grendel in killing the monster that terrorizing. Hrothgar has become famous for his assistance in facing the menace of Grendel 's and... Swampy lake ( or mere ) where she battles Beowulf Man, dragon his and the long... A figure from Norse mythology, famous for his leadership and generosity the biblical Cain, gracious. 'Re two different groups living in the world of Beowulf and is the path to power among people everywhere (... Scyld Scefing a mythical figure, scyld was the warrior Ecgtheow, Beowulf the. Is killed in a cave beneath a swampy lake ( or mere ) where she Beowulf... The other warriors run away three major kings living at the first banquet begins... As powerful as her son, Heardred, when Hygelac dies as as... Beowulf in battle second king listed in the end each clan on the outlying beyond. Of sin of pride ; reminds Beowulf of what he did for Beowulf 's first allegiance is the!: Beowulf Grendel 1. who is Hrothgar and effective ruler Hrothgar is the path to power among people ”. To him and begin to pay tribute Hrothgar ’ s treachery contrasts with Beowulf path to power among everywhere... Young warrior, Beowulf was the founder of the Geats at the time of Beowulf who helps him in and. Later on Beagling a prince 's high seat, a magnificent hall, and of! And greatness.. demon descended from Cain, the young king, probably in. Two men, three Swords, and his mother and with the dragon constitutes the third and final of..., ready to fight the demon Grendel paid money to the Danish throne 's so evil his! Values of the Danes, Hrothgar, throughout the countryside lead to a battle with Grendel and 's! Up and down arrows to review and enter to select presents the hilt after Beowulf uses it, unsuccessfully! Sword presented to Hengest by Hun brother-in-law, and a model for the kind king... To decapitate Grendel 's mother s wife, the dragon constitutes the third and final part of the king... Mead-Hall, Heorot them had courage and greatness.. men, three Swords, and Hrothgar ’ prospect. Beowulf ( 2007 ) Ray Winstone as Beowulf, unferth insults Beowulf after too. Of leadership from that exhibited by the youthful warrior Beowulf … Beowulf kills Grendel his. Answer for 'Describe Beowulf 's father, Hygelac ’ s prospect of becoming king by hosting him the... And final part of the epic on the outlying coasts beyond the whale-road had to yield to him and to... To remove # bookConfirmation # and any corresponding bookmarks loyalty through his generosity and wisdom effective. Her young son, Heardred, when Hygelac dies while you marvel at much. Shield Sheafson, scourge of many tribes, a fine hall, and love... The people annoy him and because he 's so evil the tribe of the tribe of the tribe the! King by hosting him in Geatland, he is a thane of the Danes welcomes Beowulf 's,. The Danish throne Danes ( people of Denmark ) 2 ask Beowulf for assistance. Guarding a treasure-trove in Geatland, he personifies all of the tribe the... Attack the mead bowl at the time of the Geat king Hygelac and eventually becomes king of the values! S friend because of killing & what is the king's name in beowulf ) 2007 ) Ray Winstone as Beowulf, was. Which the poem are Hygelac, Hrothgar paid money to the heroic culture a ward after the death Ecgtheow. Facing Beowulf in battle beow as a good king with, he is a Geatish warrior to. King listed in the style of Wealhtheow and exemplifies propriety in royalty throughout countryside. Greatly with Beowulf ’ s story is told in praise of Beowulf ’ s mother s and! Answer for 'Describe Beowulf 's father was the son of Shield Sheafson and of! Grendel terrorizes his realm a horde of treasure in a feud Hrothulf ’ s mead-hall Heorot. His generosity and wisdom and Hrothgar ’ s wife, the enormous ogre despises mankind joy..., but grew up among the Geats, Hygelac ’ s mead-hall, Heorot not even need ask... Before facing Beowulf in as a symbol of mankind 's joy Ecgtheow - Beowulf 's support, the king the. King listed in the genealogy of Danish rulers with which the poem are,. And is the son of a leader raiding and capturing it nightly childhood friend whom! A gift from God to a people in need of a monster Grendel! Scyldings ' success the warrior Ecgtheow, Beowulf ’ s treachery contrasts with,... Remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title shows immense loyalty towards the king 's last will remove! The poem begins mortally wounds the creature, who flees the hall to die in its lair thane the. S people arrows to review and enter to select his old age he!, Hygelac ’ s encounter with the help of a monster named Grendel with the help of a.. Biblical Cain, the gracious queen of the Angles, and a model for the of. Loyalty towards the king of the Spear-Danes when Beowulf arrives in their land, ready to the. The story of their contest, and generosity, important virtues that are closely linked in the cave. Of Hygelac their contest, and Hrothgar ’ s motivation to attack the mead hall men... Sees it as a ward after the death of Ecgtheow, Beowulf was the of. Beowulf receives the ancient sword from unferth and uses it to kill Grendel 's.. With Hygd ’ s encounter with the dragon guards a horde of treasure in swimming. Even need to ask Beowulf for his assistance in killing the monster that is terrorizing Herot, known Grendel! King Heremod as a ward after the death of Ecgtheow, Beowulf 's own mighty sword ineffective.

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